Нейрокомпьютерные интерфейсы для расширения функций мозга

Аннотация

Нейрокомпьютерные интерфейсы (НКИ) соединяют отделы нервной системы с внешними устройствами с целью восстановления моторных и сенсорных функций больных с неврологическими поражениями. За последние 50 лет НКИ прошли путь от первоначальных идей до высокотехнологических современных воплощений. Этому развитию в значительной мере способствовали методики многоканальной инвазивной регистрации активности нейронных ансамблей.

Современные НКИ способны управлять механическими протезами рук и ног. Более того, НКИ могут обеспечивать сенсорную обратную связь, позволяющую пользователю ощущать движения протеза и его взаимодействие с внешними предметами.  Новейшие НКИ соединяют несколько пользователей в мозгосеть. В настоящем обзоре эти достижения разбираются с акцентом на инвазивные НКИ.

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Для цитирования

Лебедев. М.А. Нейрокомпьютерные интерфейсы для расширения функций мозга. Наука и инновации в медицине. 2016(3):12-27.

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