Modern Algorithms of Thoracic Cage Stabilization in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures and Flail Chest
Objectives– to improve the treatment results in patients with multiple rib fractures and flail chest via the development and implementation of modern therapeutic and tactical algorithms.
Material and methods.A non-randomized prospective study has been carried out to evaluate the results of treatment in 198 patients withmultiple rib fractures and flail chestin the period of 2011-2017. Three clinical types were identified: 1) patients with multiple rib fractures with disordered thoracic cage structure – 77 (38.9%); 2) patients with flail chest – 71 (35.9%); 3) patients with multiple rib fractures without disordered thoracic cage structure – 50 (25.2%).
There were developed and applied the diagnostic and treatment algorithms depending on the severity of injures of sternocostal frame and intrapleural organs, the presence and severity of associated injuries and background diseases, the conditions of medical aid.
Results.The treatment tactics of all patients was based on the differentiated, staged and combined use of various methods of stabilizing the thoracic cage including the advanced types of medical care. Surgical stabilization methods were used in 162 patients, in 26 of them a combination of surgical techniques was applied, in 20 – the internal pneumatic stabilization, in 42 – the conservative treatment was performed.
The retrospective analysis and the obtained results compared to the results of the equivalent historical group allowed us to state the decrease of mechanical ventilation time from 11.0 ± 3.9 to 5.1 ± 3.2 days (t = 1.17; p> 0.05), the length of stay in the ICU from 11.5 ± 5.4 to 6.8 ± 3.7 days (t = 0.72; p> 0.05), the complications frequency from 36.5% to 15.9% and mortality rate from 22.3% to 8.7%.
Conclusion.Modern diagnostic and treatment algorithms in patients with multiple rib fractures and flail chest are based on stage-by-stage application, succession and combination of various methods of the thoracic cage stabilization throughout the medical assistance process. The algorithms, allowing to stabilize the thorax and to improve the condition of the patients in general, make it possible to realize the full potential of modern thoracic surgery.
Conflict of Interest:nothing to disclose.
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