Vol 3, No 1 (2018)

Articles

CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE TONSILS ASSOCIATED WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS

Baryshevskaya L.A., Vladimirova T.Y., Zeleva O.V., Koldova E.V.

Abstract

Aim - to identify the prevalence of chronic tonsillitis in the Samara region and the causes of its recurrence. Materials and methods. The authors analyzed the frequency of occurrence of chronic tonsillitis among the patients of the Samara Diagnostic Center for the period from 2011 to 2016, the frequency of quinsy and paratonsillar abscesses. Middle-aged and elderly people with signs of chronic tonsillitis were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus. Results. 56 adult and elderly patients aged from 44 to 75 years (18 men - 31% and 38 women - 65.5%) underwent additional examination of saliva and blood for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus. The analyses were taken on an empty stomach in the morning. When taking saliva, hygienic treatment of the oral cavity was not carried out. Saliva was investigated by a qualitative method of PCR diagnostics. We also performed serodiagnostic assay by ELISA. DNA of Epstein-Barr virus was discovered in 16 patients (27.6%), IgG antibodies to nuclear antigen (EBNA) - in 13 patients (22%), and 1 patient (1.7%) had IgM antibodies to capsid antigen (VCA). Thus, 1.7% of Epstein-Barr virus was diagnosed at an early stage, 22% of patients had infection in the past and 27.6% had recent infection. Conclusions. Presented evidence suggests that it is necessary to combine examination of the content of tonsillar lacunae with PCR and ELISA diagnostics for Epstein-Barr virus not only in young patients of working age with chronic tonsillitis, but also in middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic tonsillitis in order to improve the efficiency and quality of the treatment at the stage of outpatient visit.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):6-10
pages 6-10 views

OUR EXPERIENCE IN THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH FOREIGN BODIES IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT

Egorov V.I., Mustafaev D.M.

Abstract

Urrently, the problem of foreign bodies in the airways of children continues to be relevant. Aim - to assess the effectiveness of diagnostics and treatment of children with foreign bodies in tracheobronchial tree. Materials and methods. In the Department of otorhinolaryngology, the SBHI of MAMRRCI n.a. M.F. Vladimirskiy, we performed an integrated research of 189 children of different age, who had aspirated foreign bodies in the airways. We studied anamnestic, clinical, roentgenological and endoscopic criteria for the diagnosis of this pathology; we also studied the frequency of clinical complications caused by aspiration. Results. Follow-up observation of these children shows a significant frequency of remaining changes in the lungs after removal of foreign bodies. Discussion. In our opinion, for correct diagnosis and provision of qualified care to sick children it is necessary to raise awareness of parents and primary care physicians about the dangers of this pathology. If there is a reason to suspect a foreign body in the airways, consultation in a specialized institution is vitally important. The only correct method of treating children with foreign body in the airways, even at the slightest suspicion, is timely performed tracheobronchoscopy.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):11-14
pages 11-14 views

MODERN VIEW ON TRACHEOSTOMY

Zamanov M.U., Miroshnichenko N.A., Ovchinnikov A.Y., Gorban D.G., Ekaterinchev V.A.

Abstract

Aim - optimization of postoperative period in tracheostomy patients. Materials. Since 2016 we have followed up 48 patients with stenosis of the larynx and trachea of various etiologies, all the patients underwent urgent tracheostomy. Methods. It is necessary to adhere to the following principles: to carry out correction of psychoemotional status; to educate the patients how to take care and change the trachea cannula themselves; to use antitussive drugs in the absence of severe concomitant pathology of the lower respiratory tract; to perform moistening of the mucous membrane by instilling physiological solution into the trachea or using moistened gauze aprons; to use a humidifier in the room; in case of erosive tracheitis - to apply instillation of antiseptic solutions and hormonal preparations. Results. In patients who regularly follow these recommendations, the risk of postoperative complications (erosive tracheitis, cicatricial tracheal stenosis and respiratory failure) is much lower.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):15-18
pages 15-18 views

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA ON LARYNGEAL PAPILLOMATOSIS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

Mustafaev D.M., Egorov V.I.

Abstract

Im - to evaluate the prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis in adults and children, to analyze the structure of the disease and to generalize the dynamics of the disease in the Moscow region. Materials and methods. The authors have carried out an epidemiological analysis of laryngeal papillomatosis in the Moscow region in the period from 2008 to 2014. Results. According to the received data, the prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis in the Moscow region is 2.3 per 100000 children and 1.95 per 100000 adults. Discussion. Based on the epidemiological data, the significance of laryngeal papillomatosis in adults and children has been proved, and increased morbidity has been revealed. Laryngeal papillomatosis is one of the most important social and health problems. Taking into account the significant increase in the incidence of laryngeal papillomatosis in adults and children, it is necessary to focus on the organization of preventive measures aimed not only at preventing relapses, but also against the spread of HPV infection among healthy population in the Moscow region. To conclude, it is necessary to carry out annual analysis of the structure and course of the disease in the Moscow region.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):19-21
pages 19-21 views

DIAGNOSTICS OF PHARYNX MYCOSIS

Reshetnikova V.P., Baryshevskaya L.A., Zeleva O.V., Popov M.N.

Abstract

Aim - to characterize different methods for diagnosis of mycotic lesions of the pharynx used in medical practice. Materials and methods. This article describes various methods of laboratory diagnostics of tonsillopharyngeal mycosis and their indications; and presents the analysis of 117 adult cases of tonsillopharyngeal mycosis confirmed by the analysis of thick blood film after the incubation in thermoregulator combined with blood agar inoculation. In addition, this method includes a microflora test which in most chronical cases accompanies pharyngeal mycosis. Results. The study revealed relevant advantages of the presented methods of pharynx mycosis diagnostics, which not only detect the presence of mycelium and its morphology, but also evaluate its role in the inflammatory process. In addition, this method includes bacterial culture test that in most chronical cases accompanies pharynx mycosis. Out of 100% only 17.9% of observations (21 patients) showed Candida fungus in parasitic phase as mono-infection, the other 82.1% of cases proved bacterial presence. The most frequent combination was Candida and Streptococcus spp (including pneumococcus) that made up 41.9% of total observations. In 10.3% of cases Staphylococcus spp was detected. Other patients had more than two kinds of microorganisms. The following combinations were revealed: fungi, streptococci and staphylococci in 17.9% cases; fungi and streptococci with Klebsiella and\or Moraxella catarrhalis or other opportunistic pathogenic microflora in 12% cases. Conclusions. The most effective method of research of upper airway mycosis is the one that enables to reveal Candida fungi presence and concentration as well as to identify their status (saprophitic or parasitic) in the patient's body using thick blood microscopy. The value of this method increases with simultaneous evaluation of associated microflora and its relation to macroorganism. Being simple, cost-effective and highly informative, complex method of diagnostics of upper airway mycosis can be widely used in medical practice.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):22-25
pages 22-25 views

VOICE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER LARYNGECTOMY BY MEANS OF TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL SHUNTING AND VOICE PROSTHETICS

Chujkova A.Y., Vozdvizhenskij M.O., Makhonin A.A.

Abstract

Aim - to evaluate the effectiveness of voice rehabilitation with the use of voice prosthesis, and to review the existing methods of voice rehabilitation with their advantages and disadvantages in order to define the most effective one. Materials and methods. 26 clinical cases include patients aged 54-70 years who underwent laryngectomy as a part of the throat cancer treatment. Voice prostheses were used for their rehabilitation. Results. Tracheoesophageal shunting with voice prosthesis has remarkable advantages over the other methods of restoring the normal voice function.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):26-30
pages 26-30 views

NEW WAYS OF TREATING PERENNIAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS

Dzhimsheleishvili N.P., Ovchinnikov A.Y., Miroshnichenko N.A.

Abstract

Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry n.a. A.I. Evdokimov Selecting the proper treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) today is often unsuccessful. At present, PAR is characterized by the early beginning, quite often continuously relapsing course and resistance to antiallergic therapy. Study of the mechanisms of the course of the disease creates a basis for the rational therapy that assumes impact on the composite inflammatory response, not only on allergy symptoms. Aim - to reflect the importance of a modern approach to treatment of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Materials and methods. For analysis we decided to conduct a comparative study of monotherapy with topical glucocorticosteroids and combined therapy consisting of topical glucocorticosteroids together with intranasal antihistamine medications. Results. The research showed that the use of the combined therapy with topical glucocorticosteroids and intranasal antihistamine medications can be effective in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, considerably improving the quality of life.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):31-36
pages 31-36 views

NATURE OF METABOLIC AND FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF CELLULAR FACTORS OF CONGENITAL IMMUNITY IN RHINOSURGICAL PATIENTS IN EARLY POST-OPERATIVE PERIOD

Korkmazov A.M., Gizinger O.A., Korkmazov M.Y.

Abstract

Aim - to study the peculiarities of metabolic and functional activity of cell factors of congenital immunity in patients after rhinosurgical treatment in early stages of post-operative period. Materials and methods. The authors examined leukocyte profile of nasal secretion and their viability, phagocytic and lysosomal activity, oxygen-dependent biotransformation of neutrophilic granulocytes in NBT-test during the first 24 hours after the operation for deflection of the nasal septum. Results. The study showed that spontaneous NBT-test during the first 24 hours of postoperative period revealed that patients after the operation for deflection of the nasal septum with the following 24-hour tamponade have increased number of viable neutrophilic granulocytes with better lysosomal activity, decreased phagocytosis activity and intensity, and depressed biocidal characteristics. Conclusion. The revealed increase in the number of viable neutrophilic granulocytes, their better lysosomal activity, associated with decreased phagocytosis activity and intensity, and depressed biocidal characteristics prove the need for the search of additional methods of postoperative rehabilitation.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):37-40
pages 37-40 views

MASKS OF POLYPOUS RHINOSINUSITIS

Pestova R.M., Saveljeva E.E., Sharipov R.A., Bogomanova D.N.

Abstract

Polypous rhinosinusitis is a chronic disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses, which is characterized by recurrent growth of nasal polyps. This disease is found in 1-5% of the population. According to the data of 2017, patients with nasal polypous rhinosinusitis account for 13% of all patients treated in our clinic. Polypous rhinosinusitis can be either an independent disease or a manifestation of other diseases. Aim - to present a case from practice, which is interesting due to the fact that two independent diseases were hiding under the mask of polypous rhinosinusitis. Results. Strict administration of the diagnostic algorithm, modern principles of functional surgery of the paranasal sinuses led to the recovery of the patient.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):41-43
pages 41-43 views

CLINICAL CASE OF ODONTOGENIC MAXILLARY SINUSITIS

Hrappo N.S., Mironova E.Y., Kotyakov A.A., Solovjeva L.V.

Abstract

Aim - to show the clinical observation of the development of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis in case of entering the sinus of the root of the tooth. Materials and methods. The results of the study - video endoscopy of the nasal cavity and CT of the paranasal sinuses - were evaluated. The obtained data pointed to the foreign body that caused not only an inflammatory process with subsequent development of the mycetoma, but also destruction of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus, the inferior nasal concha. Access to the maxillary sinus was discussed, and surgical intervention was performed. Conclusions. The root of the tooth was extracted through the developed defect of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus communicating with the lower nasal passage.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):44-46
pages 44-46 views

GERIATRIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND HEARING LOSS

Vladimirova T.Y., Aizenshtadt L.V.

Abstract

Aim - to examine the results of a comprehensive geriatric assessment depending on the degree of hearing loss. Material and methods. We examined 110 patients aged from 60 to 90 years with bilateral symmetrical impairment of the hearing function. The research design included examination of the otolaryngologist, auditory function test, and geriatric assessment of neuropsychological status. Two groups were allocated based upon the study of the hearing function: the main group, which included 58 people with moderate hearing loss, and the control group, which included 52 people with significant hearing loss. Results. It was revealed that hearing loss has a negative influence on the cognitive abilities of geriatric patients. With increasing degrees of hearing loss, the progression of dementia is observed. There is a direct correlation between the progression of hearing loss and development of depression in geriatric patients. Conclusion. Our study revealed a relationship between the degree of hearing loss and neuropsychological changes in geriatric patients. Hearing function test as a part of comprehensive geriatric assessment would facilitate the understanding of the causes of neuropsychological disorders in geriatric patients.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):47-50
pages 47-50 views

DIAGNOSTICS OF AUDITORY FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HERPES VIRUS INFECTION

Karabaev H.E., Nasretdinova M.T.

Abstract

Aim - to increase the effectiveness of diagnosis in cases of impaired auditory function in persons with herpes virus infection. Materials and methods. Short-latent auditory event-related potentials were studied in 47 patients with auditory function impairment infected with herpes virus. Results. Contamination of the auditory analyzer with the herpes simplex virus type I is characterized by the impairment of the distal and proximal parts of the auditory nerve and cochlear nuclei, and in the presence of cytomegalovirus (both in mono-and mixed combination) the auditory analyzer is damaged at the level of the brainstem - from the upper olivar complex to the lower tubercles of the quadruple.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):51-54
pages 51-54 views

DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-INFLAMMATORY PERILYMPHATIC FISTULAS OF LABYRINTHINE WINDOWS

Kozarenko M.A.

Abstract

Aim -1. To remind of the difficulty of diagnosis of noninflammatory perilymphatic fistulas of labyrinthine windows and to allocate the most significant audiometric tests for the differential diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulas of labyrinthine windows (PFOLW). 2. To emphasize the absence of accurate data on the prevalence of this pathology up to date. Materials and methods. The methods of audiological testing used in 32 intraoperatively verified cases of PFOLW are listed and discussed. Clinical examples from own practice are given. Results. After analyzing the informativeness of the audio tests, the routing of the audiological examination of patients with PFOLW was determined. inclusion 1. The sequence of the tests used in the examination of patients suspected of PFOLW, the identification of which is difficult due to the absence of characteristic symptoms (including audiometric ones), is justified. 2. The expediency of a broader use of surgical treatment in cases of deafness of unknown origin is confirmed.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):55-58
pages 55-58 views

TONE TIMBRE AS HEARING QUALITY: VISUALIZATION OF THE CONDITION AND DYNAMIC PATTERN

Minaeva T.I., Ovchinnikov E.L., Yashin S.S.

Abstract

Aim - definition of perceived timbre of sounds (tones) as hearing quality; determining the criterion of hearing quality and assessment of effectiveness of the prevention and treatment of hearing disorders and concomitant pathologies. Materials. Audiometric indicators obtained with the use of all-frequency sound generator in patients with hearing disorders. Methods. Audiometric method with the use of allfrequency sound generator; methods of mathematical calculation and analysis. Results. The performed experiments and computer simulation showed that the timbre of perceived sound represents the hearing quality. Hearing quality criterion can be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment of hearing disorders and concomitant pathologies, medical manipulations and physical therapy for rapid control and monitoring of the hearing state. Conclusions. Assessment of the hearing quality and the effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic measures. Results of the study are safe and reproducible; monitoring is fast, visualized and reliable.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):59-65
pages 59-65 views

THE USE OF VESTIBULAR REABILITATION IN PATIENTS WITH VIOLATIONS OF THE VESTIBULAR ANALYZER

Nasretdinova M.T., Karabaev H.E.

Abstract

Aim - to present the results of the observational program, the purpose of which was to reduce visual disorders associated with vestibular dysfunction, and restore balance, thereby reducing the risk of falls. Materials and methods. 46 patients took part in the observational study. Determination of the optimal duration of vestibular rehabilitation in patients with unilateral non-progressive peripheral vestibular disorder. Results. It was found that the optimal duration of treatment is no less than 2 months.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):66-68
pages 66-68 views

MONITORING-CONTROL OF NOISE HAZARD OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Ovchinnikov E.L., Yashin S.S., Minaeva T.I.

Abstract

Aim - justification of the method of monitoring the noise hazard of the environment. Objects and methods. A residential area with installed equipment to assess noise hazard; determination of the spectral composition of real noise. Results. The article establishes and substantiates the ratio between the intensity (pressure) of the sounds of different frequencies and the loudness of the perceived tones as the inverse law of Weber-Ovchinnikov The ways of studying the relief of the sound field and monitoring of the acoustic landscape of the environment are outlined.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2018;3(1):69-72
pages 69-72 views

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