Vol 7, No 3 (2022)

Human Anatomy

Current data on the development of tongue in prenatal period of human ontogenesis

Alekseeva T.A., Lutsay E.D.


The timely diagnosis and treatment of maxillofacial pathologies where the tongue plays an important role requires an accurate description of the organ’s structure and development.

The paper presents a review of the current research data on the features of embryonic development, macro- and microanatomy, morphometry and ultrasound anatomy of the human tongue during the prenatal development. The selected papers, published in the Russian and English languages, cover the period of the last decade. We generalized the obtained data using the empirical and theoretical approaches.

The macroscopic study of the external structure of the tongue was underrepresented in the current studies, usually performed in combination with morphometry. The studies of histotopograms in combination with histochemical methods were numerous, contributing to the more detailed classification of the tongue development stages. The selected papers focused on the period of human embryonic development and the correlating histological characteristics of the tongue. The morphometric characteristics and the blood supply of the tongue in the prenatal period require further research.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):148-154
pages 148-154 views

Variability of histological features and thickness of the dura mater in adults related to sex and age

Balandin A.A., Pankratov M.K., Balandina I.A.


Aim – to conduct a comparative analysis of the structure and thickness of the dura mater between men and women in the first period of adulthood and in old age.

Material and methods. We analysed the results of the complex morphological study of the dura mater in 91 deceased (49 male and 42 female) aged of 22 to 32 and 75 to 88 years. The deceased were divided into two groups according to their age. Group I included 49 cases of the first period of adulthood: 26 men and 23 women who died at the age of 22 to 32. Group II consisted of 42 cases of senile age: 23 men and 19 women who died at the age of 75 to 88. The autopsy material was collected around the parietal bones, in the projection of the sagittal suture.

Results. The dura mater was represented by dense unformed connective tissue. The collagen fibers in the first period of adulthood are compactly organized, have a clear direction and structure. In the old age there is a pronounced disorder of the fibers. The walls of blood vessels in senile patients are usually thickened. The dura mater thickens with age by 29.2% in men and by 28.2% in women.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):155-159
pages 155-159 views

Correlation between morphological and biomechanical features and carotid atherosclerosis

Gavrilenko A.V., Nikolenko V.N., Al-Yusef N.N., Zharikova T.S., Bulatova L.R., Li Z.


The main cause of ischemic stroke is the atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. Unlike other arteries, carotid arteries have unique anatomical structure and hemodynamic characteristics, which are significantly related to the occurrence of atherosclerosis.

Thus, a proper understanding of the functional anatomy, local hemodynamics of the carotid arteries and their relationship with the atherosclerotic process can improve the quality of early diagnosis and treatment of carotid artery stenosis, which, in turn, will reduce the risk of developing of the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):160-163
pages 160-163 views


Extrasystoles: relationship with arterial thromboembolic complications

Germanova O.A., Germanov A.V., Shchukin Y.V.


Aim – to determine the relationship between extrasystoles (ES) and the development of arterial thromboembolic complications.

Material and methods. The study included 440 patients with ES 700 or more per 24 hours, control group – 88 people with ES less than 700. All patients underwent laboratory and instrumental examinations: lipid spectrum, hemostasis indicators; 24-hours ECG monitoring; echocardiography (EchoCG); Doppler ultrasound and digital sphygmography (SG) of the main arteries; ultrasound of the aorta branches, renal arteries. According to the indications, the patients were administered: stress EchoCG with physical exercises, coronary angiography, pancerebral angiography, renal arteries angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. All patients of the main group were divided into 2 subgroups, depending on the moment of occurrence of ES ventricular systole in the cardiocycle, regardless of the ectopic center: subgroup A (120) – patients with ES before the peak of transmitral blood flow; subgroup B (320) – after the peak of the transmitral blood flow. Patients were observed during 1 year and the development of arterial thromboembolic events was analyzed.

Results. According to the main clinical, laboratory and instrumental data, patients of subgroups A, B and the control group were equivalent. Also, during 1 year follow-up, a significantly higher development of arterial thromboembolic events was observed in subgroup A. When comparing the linear blood flow velocity and volumetric blood flow, there was a significant increase in parameters during the spreading of the first post-extrasystolic contraction wave. A similar trend was observed in the parameters of the kinetics of the arterial vascular wall (velocity, acceleration, power, work).

Conclusion. Extrasystoles are an additional risk factor for arterial thromboembolic events. The main danger is not the ES itself, but the wave of the first post-extrasystolic contraction, which can become the starting point for the instability of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to tears, parietal thrombosis, and embolism along the arterial vessel.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):164-169
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Promising approaches to early diagnosis of chronic rheumatic heart disease

Santalova G.V., Garanin A.A., Lebedev P.A., Kuzin M.E., Tereshina O.V.


Aim – to determine the prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in children and chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD) in adults on the example of the Samara region and to propose measures for the early detection and prevention of valvular heart lesions.

Material and methods. The authors cite the material of their own research, indicating a significant prevalence of rheumatic etiology of valvular lesions that required surgical treatment in 2016–2020 in the Samara region. We retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in out-patients of a large polyclinic of Samara city.

Results. The study demonstrates the low frequency of acute rheumatic fever in the Russian Federation along with the disproportionately high prevalence of chronic rheumatic heart disease.

Conclusion. It is advisable to supplement the procedure for preventive medical examinations of the underage, has being in force in the territory of the Russian Federation since 2017, by ultrasound examination of the heart for the timely diagnosis of chronic rheumatic heart disease and long-term treatment with benzathine penicillin. In this case, it is also possible to identify previously undiagnosed congenital heart defects and heart diseases that manifest in adolescence.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):170-175
pages 170-175 views

Occupational medicine

Anxiety in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kuvshinova N.Y., Strizhakov L.A., Ostryakova N.A., Babanov S.A.


Aim – to study the manifestation of situational anxiety symptoms in medical personnel working on the front lines with patients with COVID-19, and medical personnel working in other areas of medicine, in the context of the coronavirus pandemic.

Material and methods. The survey and analysis were conducted among the following groups: Group 1 – medical workers of COVID-19 specialty hospitals providing medical care to patients with COVID-19 (n=201); Group 2 – medical workers of multidisciplinary hospitals providing medical care in their main profile, working in the "normal mode" and periodically identifying patients with the disease of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 (n=195); Group 3 – outpatient medical workers providing medical care in conditions of an increased epidemic threshold for SARS, influenza and a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 (n=186). The control group included employees of engineering, technical and economic specialties, not related to the work in medical organizations (healthy). To study the components of situational anxiety in medical workers, the methodology "Use of the Integrative Anxiety Test (ITT)" was used.

Results. For all components, the indicators were significantly higher in the group of medical workers of COVID-19 hospitals compared to other groups. Among healthcare workers in COVID-19 hospitals, the index of "alarming assessment of prospects" prevails. In medical workers of multidisciplinary hospitals, the "asthenic component" indicator prevails. Among outpatient medical workers, the "phobic component" indicator prevails.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):176-178
pages 176-178 views

Medical Informatics

Estimation of the postmortem interval by the method of finite element modeling of postmortem heat transfer in human head

Nedugov G.V.


Aim – to develop a two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of postmortem heat transfer in head to determine the postmortem interval (PMI).

Material and methods. The finite element modeling of the geometry and postmortem heat transfer in an adult's head was carried out using the ELCUT 6.5 Student application. A hemisphere with a radius of 98 mm was used as a geometric model of the cerebral part of the head, consisting of evenly distributed homogeneous layers: the scalp, the bones, the cerebrospinal fluid of the subarachnoid space and the brain. For FEM validation we used the evaluation of the cooling curves convergence obtained by FEM and by the Marshall – Hoare and Newton – Richman cooling laws under conditions of constant and linearly varying ambient temperature.

Results. A scalable two-dimensional FEM for finding the postmortem temperature field of the head was developed. The model allows for accounting any changes in the ambient temperature, combined heat exchange conditions and the dependence of thermophysical parameters of biological tissues on the ambient temperature. The FEM check-out under standard cooling conditions showed the maximum convergence of the results of finding the postmortem temperature field with the results of valid phenomenological mathematical models when only convective heat exchange with a heat transfer coefficient equal to 6 W/(м2·К) was set on the outer edge. The developed FEM is characterized by the stability of the results of determining the prescription of death coming to deviations of the initial temperature field of the calculated region from its physiological level.

Conclusion. It is advisable to use the proposed FEM in the forensic medical expert practice when determining the prescription of death coming.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):179-185
pages 179-185 views


Assessment of puncture vertebroplasty in patients with hemangioma and osteoporosis of vertebral bodies

Ikromova D.R., Poverennova I.E., Ananyeva S.A., Poverennov A.V.


Aim – to increase the effectiveness of percutaneous puncture vertebroplasty in patients with hemangiomas and osteoporosis of vertebral bodies by assessing the immediate and long-term results of surgical treatment.

Material and methods. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Psychiatric Research Unit (WHO), EQ-5D Health Questionnaire, Roland – Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) were used to assess surgical outcomes.

Results. Similar results were obtained in the groups of patients with hemangiomas and with osteoporosis of vertebral bodies. Since osteoporosis is an age-dependent disease, the average age of patients in this group was higher, respectively, patients had a larger number of concomitant age-dependent diseases, their initial condition, test rates were lower than in the group of patients with hemangiomas. In the postoperative period, patients of the osteoporosis group also showed a pronounced positive result, although in numerical terms it was lower than in the hemangiomas group.

Conclusion. Percutaneous puncture vertebroplasty is an effective method of surgical treatment of hemangiomas and osteoporosis of vertebral bodies. Assessment of the immediate and long-term results of surgical treatment shows a pronounced positive trend according to the scales used. Pain-removing effect, which occurs immediately after surgery, is the most noticeable and valuable result for a patient. During the first three months, the positive effect increases and persists for at least 6 months after surgery.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):186-192
pages 186-192 views

Oncology and radiotherapy

The formation of lateral conical defects after radical mastectomy in patients with breast cancer

Ozhorbaev M.T., Gataullin I.G., Shagivaliev A.R.


Aim – to find the main causes of the lateral conical defects formation in obese patients after radical mastectomy for breast cancer.

Material and methods. We analysed prospectively 82 breast cancer patients with various degrees of obesity. The patients were randomized into two groups. In the main group (43 patients), the original RME method (RU patent No. 2748639, dated May 28, 2021) was used; in the control group (39 patients), the standard RME method was applied.

Results. The use of a standard elliptical incision for RME in obese patients leads to the formation of lateral conical defects, the frequency of which reaches 74%. There is a high correlation between the frequency of formation of lateral conical defects in radical mastectomy with expansion of the breast base (Spearman index 0.85 (p≤0.05), chest circumference (Spearman index 0.92(p≤0.05), fat pedicle thickness (Spearman index 0.94 (p ≤ 0.05) and degree of mammoptosis (Spearman index 0.98 (p ≤ 0.05).

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):193-196
pages 193-196 views


A case of intraoperative observation of maxillary artery aneurysm

Krasnykh M.V., Kasatkin A.E., Makarov A.V.


The maxillary artery aneurysm occurs rarely, only a few cases were described in the foreign literature where the aneurysm were associated mainly with the past head injury. The behavior of the aneurysm is largely unknown: both spontaneous resolution and growth of the aneurysm, resulting in rupture, have been reported.

We observed an aneurysm of the maxillary artery in the maxillary sinus as an intraoperative finding, with the following bleeding and embolization of the bleeding vessel.

Due to the growing number of endovideoscopic operations on the axillary system, it was proposed to increase the volume of preoperative examination to prevent the intraoperative bleeding.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):197-201
pages 197-201 views


The effect of thick hawthorn extracts on kidney

Kurkin V.A., Volkova N.A., Pravdivtseva O.E., Zaitceva E.N., Tsibina A.S., Klimova A.I.


Aim – to study the effect of the hawthorn shoots on kidney excretory function.

Material and methods. We used the shoots of Crataegus sanguinea Pall., Crataegus monogina Jacq. and Crataegus submollis Sarg. harvested during the flowering period in the arboretum of the Botanical Garden of Samara University in 2021. The raw material of each type, separately, was used in fractional maceration with 70% ethyl alcohol for creation liquid extracts, then, after extractant removal, the thick extracts were obtained. The thick extracts were processed with differential spectrophotometry method to calculate the total of flavonoids in terms of hyperoside. The diuretic effect of hawthorn thick extracts was evaluated during a chronic experiment on white mongrel rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg.

Results. It was found that thick extracts of the shoots of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. and Crataegus submollis Sarg. effect on diuresis and creatinin excretion, while the thick extract of Crataegus monogina Jacq. did not affect the excretory function of the kidneys.

Conclusion. The shoots of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. and Crataegus submollis Sarg., harvested in the flowering period, can serve as a raw material for drugs for enhancing the excretory function of the kidneys. Crataegus submollis Sarg. can serve as a medicinal plant, along with other types of hawthorn.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):202-205
pages 202-205 views

Metabolic effects of 3-substituted chromone derivatives in experimental chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Pozdnyakov D.I.


Aim – to evaluate the effect of five new 3-substituted chromone derivatives on changes in mitochondrial function and the development of tau pathology in animals under experimental chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Material and methods. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy was modeled in Wistar rats by repeated exposure to a shock wave (2 atm.) on the animal's head for seven days. The studied compounds (X3A1 – X3A5) and the reference citicoline were administered 60 minutes after injury at doses of 40 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg orally. On the eighth day of the experiment, changes in the mass coefficient of the brain, the concentration of phosphorylated tau protein in brain tissue and changes in the activity of cytochrome-c-oxidase and succinate dehyrogenase were evaluated in animals.

Results. The use of compounds X3A4 and X3A5 equally to citicoline reduced the development of tau pathology, increased the activity of mitochondrial enzymes: cytochrome-c-oxidase – by 14.5% (p<0.05), 41.9% (p<0.05) and 22.6% (p<0.05), respectively; succinate dehydrogenase – by 28.6% (p<0.05); 33.2% (p<0.05) and 22.8% (p<0.05), respectively. As a result, against the background of the administration of these compounds, an increase in brain mass coefficient was noted in relation to the animals that did not receive a pharmacological support.

Conclusion. Administration of chromone derivatives X3A4 and X3A5 to animals with experimental chronic traumatic encephalopathy prevents the development of tau pathology and atrophy of brain tissue, probably due to metabolic action, expressed in the restoration of mitochondrial function.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):206-211
pages 206-211 views


Radiographic methods in diagnostics of infectious diseases of the sternum and ribs

Medvedchikov-Ardiya M.A., Korymasov E.A., Benyan A.S.


Aim – to analyze the current possibilities of polypositional radiography and computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of infectious and inflammatory processes of the chest wall.

Material and methods. 221 patient with an infectious process in the sternum and ribs was treated in the surgical thoracic department of the "Samara Regional Clinical Hospital n.a. V.D. Seredavin" in the period from 2012 to 2020. All patients underwent CT of the chest as the primary diagnostic radiological method.

Results. Plain radiography allows for visualizing and evaluating the number of metal ligatures on the sternum, their position and relationship with it. The preference for CT is due to its capabilities both as a screening method and as a method for clarifying diagnostics (diagnosis verification). It helps to visualize the comparison of the sternal parts, the state of metal ligatures, determine the indications for bone resection and removal of incompetent fixing elements.

Conclusion. Each radiographic method for examining the chest has its own indications and its place in the arsenal of a thoracic surgeon.

Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2022;7(3):212-216
pages 212-216 views

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